Resurgence and exploration in traditional medicine (TM) is revived in 21st
century with present resistant medical system in many diseases. Unani system of medicine (USM) is one of such vital element of TM with established age-long therapeutic values.
Cucumis sativus Linn. (Family: Cucurbitaceae) commonly called as cucumber, Kheera or Khayarain in Unani. It is widely cultivated as a vegetable crop in India due to its nutritional as well as therapeutic value. Its seed pulp known as Maghz e tukhme khayarain are reported to possess wide therapeutic value as astringent, diuretic, coolent, analgesic, detergent, anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic, deobstruent, laxative, calorific, blood purifier. It has been used in health ailments like to quench thirst, urolithiasis, correct imbalanced humors, sanguinous inflammation, remove obstructions, cystitis, diabetes, bronchitis, diarrhoea and renal diseases, bilious diseases (Musakkin safra- coolent property) and in sanguinous diseases (as Musakkine hiddat e dam). This wide therapeutic value is due to the secondary metabolites and phyto-constituents, which acts synergistically when used as whole. It contains cucurbitacin A, B, C and D, ascorbic acid, lactic acid, flavanoid-fisetin, lariciresinol, secoisolariciresinol, pinoresinol, saponin, hypo-xanthine and potassium.
The classical literary evidence has also been confirmed by scientific studies to possess analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, diuretic, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, anti-carcinogenic, and wound healing activities. This study is aimed to provide a brief review of Cucumis sativus Linn. as mentioned in Unani ethno-botanical text and provide the pharmacological updates. It can be used for further scientific revalidation of the drug where it can be used efficiently for the mankind.