Faiyaz Ahmad, Vijay Bhan Singh, Amreen Fatima, Najmus Sehar and Mohammad Nafees Khan
Since ancient times the plant species are used for the therapeutic intervention. Due to its fewer side effects properties, hence it is preferred herbal therapies nowadays. A well-known Unani drug Gaozaban (Borago officinalis
L.) of the family Boraginaceae described in the Unani System of Medicine with various therapeutic properties as exhilarant, expectorant, laxative, resolvent, diuretic, lithotriptic and tonic for principal organs of the body like the brain, heart and liver. Due to these properties, it is used in the treatment of Cardiac weakness, Palpitation, Anxiety, Melancholia, Schizophrenia, Catarrh, Cough, Asthma, renal calculi and healing of wounds etc. Mostly its leaves and flowers are used. Gaozaban is used as an important ingredient in many Unani compound formulations like Khamira Gaozaban, Khamira Abresham, Dawaul Misk, Mufarreh Barid, Sharbat Deenar, Arq Gaozaban etc. It is reported that it has multiple pharmacological activities such as antidepressant, anxiolytic, antioxidant, antidiarrhoeal, antibacterial, antifungal, antiaging, anti-asthmatic, anticancer, wound healing activity and as a memory booster. These pharmacological activities are due to the presence of a number of phytochemicals such as saponin, flavonoids, tannins, anthraquinone, glycosides, phenolic compounds and gums.
The aim of this review is to update comprehensive scientific information on pharmacological activities and traditional medicinal uses of Gaozaban to provide an insight to further research on its therapeutic potential.