In this paper we shall try to explore the dimensions of temperament, whether it is limited to the psychological aspect only or it is something more than that.
Background: Ṭibb is not mere science rather it is a way of healing and healthy living. A very distinct feature of Ṭibb is individualization; individualization of not only individuals but of diseases and treatment also. And individualization can only be achieved on the basis of temperament – which is an inseparable concept of Unani Medicine. Any theory or advancement in Unani Medicine is incomplete without the consideration of temperament. In modern science, temperament is defined as a state of mind where a person makes decisions (both, big and small) and acts according to a rational belief system, which can be tested and validated as and when required by mathematical modeling and/or experimentation, which suggests that in modern science, temperament only deals with psychological modalities. But in Ṭibb, it has much broader aspect.
Method: Temperament is dealt with different meanings in different branches of science. The literature related to human temperament in different scientific fields is discussed in brief with the fundamental meaning of temperament. In Ṭibb, temperament deals with psychological, physiological, and morphological folds of human being, while in modern system of medicine and sciences, temperament accounts only for psychological behavior. Some says personality is the outcome of temperament, while others says temperament is inborn and personality develops with the time. All these aspects are being discussed here briefly.
Conclusion: The concept of temperament was originally proposed 350 BC. And after more than two thousand years of intervening medical and psychological advancement, the concept of temperament is still referenced by present-day psychologists, educators, and spiritual writers. The concept of temperament addresses the problem that why anything that looks similar still possess morphological differences and animate things which are morphologically similar are still distinct functionally. The relationship between the structures and functions can be understood in terms of the everlasting concept – temperament. It is the temperament that imparts Surat Nauiya to a specific thing through which it acquires its specific shape and structure and hence distinct functions and therefore, leads to structural and functional individualization.