Vol. 1, Issue - 1, Part A (2017)

2017, Vol. 1 Issue 1, Part APages: 08-11

Ruh and Ruh-e-Nafsaniyah: A literary research

Ghufran Ahmad, Ansari Sumaira, Mohd Zulkifle and Tasfiya
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Two different types of created objects are found in the universe, the first is that which possesses life, they are animates. The second is that which has no life, they are inanimate. This difference is due to the Ruh (spirit/pneuma). Like other animates humans are also animate, so, Ruh (pneuma) is present in human body as it is an essential component of the life, without which the maintenance of life is impossible. Ruh is produced in the heart by atmospheric air and light part of akhlat (humours). Concept of Ruh (spirit/pneuma) is mentioned in all medicine, including in religions. Unani System of Medicine (USM) has also described Ruh, its types and their genesis in different ways. Its existence as a part of external air is not denied by anyone. Unani Scholars categories Ruh into three; Ruh-e-ḥaiwani, Ruh ṭabῑ‘ῑ and Ruh-e-nafsāni (vital pneuma, natural/ vegetative pneuma and psychic pneuma). In present paper general description about Ruh is giving first with especial attention on genesis of Ruh-e-nafsāniyya, as stated in Unani literature in a comprehensive way.
Methodology: The present work is of explanatory nature. For this all statement of Unani scholars and stanza were collected from classical text. The collected material was put in systemic way and then was evaluated critically. Appropriate and befitting, commensurating with present day science, notes were given at places where need was realized to make the information more comprehensive.

International Journal of Unani and Integrative Medicine
How to cite this article:
Ghufran Ahmad, Ansari Sumaira, Mohd Zulkifle, Tasfiya. Ruh and Ruh-e-Nafsaniyah: A literary research. Int J Unani Integ Med 2017;1(1):08-11. DOI: 10.33545/2616454X.2017.v1.i1a.3
International Journal of Unani and Integrative Medicine
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