2019, Vol. 3 Issue 4, Part APages: 26-28
Frontiers of ophthalmology in Unani medicine
Dr. SM Hassan and Dr. Ehsan Rauf
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It has become an un-fortune customary to dedicate all medical inventions of Unani medicine to great stalwart Hippocrates (460 BC). No doubt the modified approach of Hippocrates gave scientific status to unani medicine in general and in fundamental aspects in particular. In fact as per available evidences, Unani system of medicine was well flourished at least 1500 years before Hippocrates.
The study of Babylonian medicine reveals very systemic efforts of treatment including preparation of compound drugs were in practice. The physicians were trained in various branches of medicine. Ophthalmology was very successfully practiced in pre Hippocratic period. Hurmus (2500 BC) is considered as first ophthalmologist in Unani medicine who was inventor of cataract. Renowned medical historian Dr. Kamal Samarrai has specially acknowledged the surgical expertise of Babylonian physicians. Yahya Nehvi the first medical historian on record has listed 6 ancient physicians who were experts in different fields of medicine which include the name of Sarjas as Ophthalmic surgeon. After Aphlatonic period Hippocrates added very valuable knowledge to the subject. Volume II of Al Hawi contains more than 50 physicians who have contributed in this field. Heeropheloos (300 BC) and Erastratoos (304 BC) have very exclusively covered the anatomy of Eyes. Roofas of Ephsus (140 AD) is regarded for his invention of ophthalmic membranes. Deesqooreedoos an army physician (70 AD) has mentioned more than 60 drugs used for treatment of ophthalmic disorders. Galen (131 AD) is known for his surgical discoveries especially for ophthalmic anatomy and treatment. The book KITAB- O-Ilajil AIN of Iskandartraliyoos (525 AD) provides basic information for ophthalmic treatment. After rise of Islam and advises of Prophet Mohammad (570 AD) for regular use of Ismid was adopted in prevention as preventive measure. During Arabian period more than 50 compilations appeared which mainly include TAZKIRATUL KAHHALIN of Isa bin Kohhal, AlHAWI of Razi, KITABUL AIN of Hunain, AIQANOON of Ibn-e-Sina, KITABUL TASREEF of Al Zahrawi, MOALIJAT-E- BUQRATYA of Ahmad bin Mohd Tabri, FIRDAUS AL HIKMAT of Rabban Tabri and KAMILUS SANA of Majoosi. The details will be discussed in full paper.