International Journal of Unani and Integrative Medicine
About UsAbout Unani Medicine
Unani Medicine, as its name suggests, owes its origin to Greece. However, it has undergone several transformations and is known at present by different names in different parts of the world, such as Greco-Arab Medicine, Ionian Medicine, Arab Medicine, Islamic Medicine, Traditional Medicine, etc. It was the Greek philosopher physician Hippocrates, regarded as the Father of Medicine who liberated Medicine from the realm of superstition and magic, and gave it the status of a science. It advanced with the wealth of scientific thought and influence of men of learning of that age like Aristotle, Theophrastus, Dioscorides and Galen. The system travelled to Rome, Alexandria, Byzantine, finally arriving at Jundishapur in Iran. In the middle of the Eight Century AD it entered Baghdad under the rule of Abbasid dynasty where it received a warm welcome and the leading luminaries of learning belonging to different religions, Muslims, Christians and others gravitated towards it and focused their energies to translate intellectual heritage of philosophy and Medicine into Arabic language. Within a span of a century [750-850 AD], a large number of important works of different sciences were translated into Arabic, paving way for their further advancement.
Theories and Philosophies of Unani Medicine
Unani Medicine is based upon the theory of humours, which presupposes the presence of four humours in the body, namely blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile. The temperaments of persons are expressed accordingly by the words sanguine, phlegmatic, choleric and melancholic according to preponderance of the respective humour. The humours themselves are assigned temperaments. Blood is hot and moist; phlegm, cold and moist; yellow bile, hot and dry; black bile, cold and dry. Likewise, the drugs are also considered to have temperaments which are classified on the basis of their potency into grades or degrees.
Now a day it has been one of the most popular systems of medicine throughout the world until the advent of Allopathy. It still enjoys mass support in several countries. The contribution of Unani Medicine in the development of medical sciences is well known. Jabir Ibn Hayyan [737-815 AD] is the first known pharmacist who invented the method of drug development in its present form. Zakariya Razi (Rhazes) [865-925 AD] is the first physician who started the practice of recording Clinical History and establishment of Hospitals. Abu Al-Qasim Zahrawi Al-Andalusi (Albucasis) [936-1036 AD] was the first surgeon who invented many surgical tools. Besides, there were several others who contributed to the development of medical science. Ibn-Sina (Avicenna) [980-1037 AD] laid down the Standard Medical curriculum for the first time and compiled his well-known treatise Al-Qanun fi’l Tibb. Ibn Baytar [1197-1248 AD] was the first Botanist who described the distinct features of medicinal plants in a scientific manner. In India, Unani Medicine enjoys wider acceptance among the people. Since independence, the Government of India have been extending increasing support and funds for the multifaceted development of Unani Medicine as well as other indigenous systems of medicine. As far as Unani Medicine is concerned, India is the world leader having the widest network of educational, research, healthcare and pharmaceutical institutions of this system.
Types of Treatment
Based on the cause and nature of disease, Unani Medicine deals with the problem through various therapeutic regimens e.g. Regimenal Therapy, Dieto-therapy, Pharmacotherapy and Surgery [Sources CCRUM Terminology].